Evaluation should include taking a history and completing a physical examination that explores specific issues related to an individual’s pain problems. The following tools may be helpful in assessment and treatment of pain.
Passik S, et al.: A new tool to assess and document pain outcomes in chronic pain patients receiving opioid therapy. Clinical Therapeutics. 2004; 26(4) 552-561
Patient self report that queries location, quality, severity of pain, level of impairment and response to pain medication.
Cleeland CS, Ryan KM. Pain assessment: global use of the Brief Pain Inventory. Ann Acad Med Singapore 23(2): 129-138, 1994.